Many countries face national fuel supply chain problems including smuggling, adulteration and dilution of fuels, all of which deprive governments of considerable tax revenue.
In order to prevent fuel fraud, fuel-marking programs are used by governments to mitigate tax evasion and subsidy abuse, minimize financial losses, and raise revenues. However, the fuel-marking programs available on the market involves mostly off-line monitoring. fuel samples taken from fuel stations are either sent to laboratories for inspection or analyzed by “bulky” mobile devices to check the integrity of the fuel. This off-line analysis methods bring about high operational costs.